Glaucoma can is with eye drops, oral medicines , laser surgery, traditional glaucoma surgery( trabeculectomy) or a combination of these methods.
The goal of any treatment is to prevent loss of vision, as vision loss from glaucoma is irreversible.
but if glaucoma is detected early,it can be well controlled with medical and/or surgical treatment, most people with glaucoma will not lose their sight.
Taking medications regularly, as prescribed, is crucial to preventing vision-threatening damage
It is important to take your medications regularly and exactly as prescribed if you are to control your eye pressure. To minimize absorption into the bloodstream and maximize the amount of drug absorbed in the eye, close your eye for one to two minutes after administering the drops and press your index finger lightly against the inferior nasal corner of your eyelid to close the tear duct which drains into the nose. While almost all eye drops may cause an uncomfortable burning or stinging sensation at first ( particularly when the treatment is started) , the discomfort should last for only a few seconds.
Sometimes, when eye drops don’t sufficiently control IOP, pills may be prescribed in addition to drops. These pills, which have more systemic side effects than drops, also serve to turn down the eye’s faucet and lessen the production of fluid. These medications are usually taken from two to four times daily. It is important to share this information with all your other doctors so they can prescribe medications for you which will not cause potentially dangerous interactions.
When medications do not achieve the desired results, or have intolerable side effects, your ophthalmologist may suggest surgery.
Laser surgery has become increasingly popular as an intermediate step between drugs and traditional surgery though the long-term success rates are variable. The most common type performed for open-angle glaucoma is called trabeculoplasty. This procedure takes between 10 and 15 minutes, is painless, and can be performed in either a doctor’s office or an outpatient facility. The laser beam (a high energy light beam) is focused upon the eye’s drain. Contrary to what many people think, the laser does not burn a hole through the eye. Instead, the eye’s drainage system is changed in very subtle ways so that aqueous fluid is able to pass more easily out of the drain, thus lowering IOP.
You may go home and resume your normal activities following surgery. Your doctor will likely check your IOP one to two hours following laser surgery. After this procedure, many patients respond well enough to be able to avoid or delay surgery. While it may take a few weeks to see the full pressure-lowering effect of this procedure, during which time you may have to continue taking your medications, many patients are eventually able to discontinue some of their medications. This, however, is not true in all cases. Your doctor is the best judge of determining whether or not you will still need medication. Complications from laser are minimal, which is why this procedure has become increasingly popular and some centers are recommending the use of laser before drops in some patients.
Argon Laser Trabeculoplasty (ALT) — for open-angle glaucoma
The laser treats the trabecular meshwork of the eye, increasing the drainage outflow, thereby lowering the IOP. In many cases, medication will still be needed. Usually, half the trabecular meshwork is treated first. If necessary, the other half can be treated as a separate procedure. This method decreases the risk of increased pressure following surgery. Argon laser trabeculoplasty has successfully lowered eye pressure in up to 75 percent of patients treated. This type of laser can be performed only two to three times in each eye over a lifetime.
Selevctie Laser Trabeculoplasty (SLT) — for open-angle glaucoma
SLT is a newer laser that uses very low levels of energy. It is termed “selective” since it leaves portions of the trabecular meshwork intact. For this reason, it is believed that SLT, unlike other types of laser surgery, may be safely repeated. Some authors have reported that a second repeat application of SLT or SLT after prior ALT is effective at lowering IOP.
Laser Peripheral Iridotomy (LPI) — for angle-closure glaucoma
This procedure is used to make an opening through the iris, allowing aqueous fluid to flow from behind the iris directly to the anterior chamber of the eye. This allows the fluid to bypass its normal route. LPI is the preferred method for managing a wide variety of angle-closure glaucomas that have some degree of pupillary blockage. This laser is most often used to treat an anatomically narrow angle and prevent angle-closure glaucoma attacks.
Two laser procedures for open-angle glaucoma involve reducing the amount of aqueous humor in the eye by destroying part of the ciliary body, which produces the fluid. These treatments are usually reserved for use in eyes that either have elevated IOP after having failed other more traditional treatments, including filtering surgery, or those in which filtering surgery is not possible or advisable due to the shape or other features of the eye. Transscleral cyclophotocoagulation uses a laser to direct energy through the outer sclera of the eye to reach and destroy portions of the ciliary processes, without causing damage to the overlying tissues. With endoscopic cyclophotocoagulation (ECP), the instrument is placed inside the eye through a surgical incision, so that the laser energy is applied directly to the ciliary body tissue.
They correct vision like eye-glasses do and are safe when used with care. Contact lenses Contact lenses are thin, clear disks of plastic that float on the surface of the eye. are used to correct the same conditions that eyeglasses do: myopia (nearsightedness), hyperopia (farsightedness) and astigmatism (blurred vision due to the shape of the cornea) .There are also certain eye conditions, such as keratoconus (when the cornea develops a cone-like bulge) and aniseikonia (when each eye perceives the size of an image differently) that are better corrected with contact lenses.
Millions of people around the world wear contact lenses. Depending on your lifestyle, your motivation and the health of your eyes, contact lenses may provide a safe and effective alternative to eyeglasses when used with proper care and maintenance
They correct vision like eye-glasses do and are safe when used with care. Contact lenses Contact lenses are thin, clear disks of plastic that float on the surface of the eye. are used to correct the same conditions that eyeglasses…
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